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Conversion Table Factors
Weights of Steel 
Units of Volume to Weight 
Multiply By 
Cubic centimeters to kilograms (Kg) 
0.00784 
Cubic meters to tons 
7.8417 
Cubic inches to pounds (lb) 
0.2833 
Cubic feet to pounds (LB) 
490.0 
Cubic feet to tons 
0.21875 
Cubic feet to U.S. short tons 
0.245 
Formula 
Round bar, kg per lineal meter 
(diameter in mm) 2 x 0.00616 
Hexagon bar, kg per lineal meter 
(across flats in mm) 2 x 0.00680 
Square bar, kg per lineal meter 
(across flats in mm) 2 x 0.00784 
Round bar, lbs per lineal foot 
(diameter in inches) 2 x 2.670 
Hexagon bar, lbs per lineal foot 
(across flats in inches) 2 x 2.944 
Square bar, lbs per lineal foot 
(across flats in inches) 2 x 3.400 
Temperature Conversion 
Centigrade (C) to Fahrenheit (F) 
(C x 9/5 )+ 32 
Fahrenheit (F) to Centigrade (C) 
5/9 (F – 32) 
Comparison of Surface Finishes 
Roughness Grade No. 
N1 
N2 
N3 
N4 
N5 
N6 
N7 
N8 
N9 
N10 
N11 
Ra (micrometers) 
0.025 
0.050 
0.1 
0.2 
0.4 
0.8 
1.6 
3.2 
6.3 
12.5 
20.0 
CLA (microinches) 
1 
2 
4 
8 
16 
32 
63 
125 
250 
500 
1000 
Note: Where tons are referred to, these are Imperial U.K. tons, equal to 2240 lbs. US Short tons are equal to 2000 lbs. A ton is equal to 1000 kilograms. Some of the conversion figures given have been rounded and should therefore be used as a guideline only.
Units of Length 
Multiply by 
Millimeters to inches 
0.03937 
Inches to millimeters 
25.4 
Centimeters to inches 
0.3937 
Inches to centimeters 
2.54 
meters to feet 
3.2808 
Feet to meters 
0.3048 


Units of Area 
Multiply by 
Square millimeters to square inches 
0.00155 
Square inches to square millimeters 
645.160 
Square centimeters to square inches 
0.1550 
Square inches to square centimeters 
6.4516 
Square meters to square feet 
10.7636 
Square feet to square meters 
0.0929 

Units of Weight 
Multiply by 
Grams to pounds (LB 
.002205 
Pounds (LB) to grams 
453.5 
Kilograms to pounds (LB) 
2.205 
Pounds (LB) to kilograms 
0.4535 
Kilograms to tons 
0.0009842 
Tons to kilograms 
1016.05 
Kilograms to US short tons 
0.0011023 
US short tons to kilograms 
907.185 



Units of Force and Pressure 
Multiply by 
Newtons (N) to kilograms force (Kg.f.) 
0.10197 
Kilograms force (Kg.f.) to Newtons (N) 
9.80661 
Newtons (N) to pounds force (lb.f.) 
0.225 
Pounds force (lb.f.) To Newtons (N) 
4.448 
Kilogram meters (kg.f.m.) To pounds feet (lb.f.ft.) 
7.233 
Pounds feet (lb.f.ft.) To kilogram meters (kg.f.m.) 
0.138 
Newton meters (N.m.) To pound inches (lb.f.in.) 
8.851 
Pound inches (lb.f.in.) To Newton meters (N.m) 
0.113 
Newton meters (N.m.) To pounds feet (lb.f.ft.) 
0.738 
Pounds feet (lb.f.ft.) To Newton meters (N.m.) 
1.356 
Newtons per sq. mm (N/mm2) to pounds per sq. inch (LB/in2) 
145.03 
Pounds per sq. inch (LB/in2) to Newtons per sq. mm (N/mm2) 
0.006895 
Newtons per sq. mm (N/mm2) to tons per sq. inch (Ton.f/in2) 
0.06475 
Tons per sq. inch (Ton.f/in2) to Newtons per sq. mm (N/mm2) 
15.444 
Newtons per sq. mm (N/mm2) to US short tons per sq. inch (Ton.f/in2) 
0.07252 
US short tons per sq. inch (Ton.f/in2) to Newtons per sq. mm (N/mm2) 
13.789 
Kilograms per sq. mm (Kg/mm2) to pounds per sq. inch (LB/in2) 
1422.335 
Pounds per sq. inch (LB/in2) to kilograms per sq. mm (kg/mm2) 
0.000703 
Kilograms per sq. mm (Kg/mm2) to tons per sq. inch (Ton/in2) 
0.6350 
Tons per sq. inch (Ton/in2) to kilograms per sq. mm (kg/mm2) 
1.5748 
Kilograms per sq. mm (Kg/mm2) to US short tons per sq. inch (Ton/in2) 
0.7112 
US short tons per sq. inch (Ton/in2) to kilograms per sq. mm (kg/mm2) 
1.406 